73 years ago today…

Jacques Desjardins had written a tribute to his uncle Albert Dugal. What he had written  in French was so touching that I had told him it had to be translated in English.

Jacques had a cousin who did just that…!

Her name is Thérèse Kirouac. She too wanted to pay homage to her uncle…

***

I would like to talk to you about my uncle, Flight Sergeant J. J-B. Albert Dugal, member of l’Escadron 425 Les Alouettes during the last World War. He died on March 3, 1943 during a bombing mission on Hamburg; he was the «bomb aimer» during this mission.

bomb aimer

I never knew my uncle, as I was born 11 months after he passed away. My grandmother and my mother, his sister, kept his memory alive for me. He was that brave hero who sacrificed his life for his country and liberty. But who was he exactly?

KB-E_0009

I then decided to invest myself seriously in this fascinating adventure and to discover my childhood hero. Here I would like to greet and thank Mr. Pierre Lagacé and his network for the valuable help and support they have given me. Without Pierre, I would have easily given up.

I began my project by revisiting the old box of photos and letters that my mother gave me after she passed away. I also got help from my Aunt Claire, the only living person who was able to answer my numerous questions. She was very happy to help me relive her great brother’s memories who died at war a long time ago. Thank you Aunt Claire.

Flight Sergeant Albert Dugal was born in Montréal on May 5, 1913. He was the son of Rose-Anna Godin and Albert Dugal Sr. He was the oldest of a family of 10 children. His sister Claire told me he was very respectful and caring for his parents. I asked her how he was as a brother, and she confirmed that Albert would treat them the same way.

In July 1940 at age 27, he decided to join the RCAF. He tried out twice before being accepted on May 5, 1941, the day he signed his enrollment papers. He obtained the ranking of Observing Sergeant in March 1942 at the No. 9 Bombing and Gunnery School in Mont-Joli.

On April 1, 1942, he got married to his beautiful Irish wife Hélène Patricia McMenamin.

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They lived together in matrimony only 13 days, as Albert took the train for Halifax on April 14. On April 30, he boarded for England where he landed on May 13, 1942.
In June 1942, during his training at L’Escadron 425 Alouettes, my uncle was among the first selected « airmen ». During his training he got a severe injury to his left foot. The injury kept him aside until the beginning of November 1942. His first mission was on November 11, 1942. He had 8 other missions before the 10th and fatal one on March 3, 1943 on Hamburg.

The last mission

The morning of March 3rd, after the usual «briefing», he had to prepare for the mission. He certainly wrote a beautiful love letter to his Irish wife Hélène, as he must have done before each mission. He must have told her over and over how much he loved her, how much he missed her and especially not to worry. May I remind you they only lived as husband and wife barely 2 weeks before his departure for combat. Then he wrote a last letter to his sister Pauline, my mother.
Below is the original of the letter.

KB-E_0006 KB-E_0007 KB-E_0008

425 squadron
March 3

Pauline,

Just received your letter of Feb 1 and although it took a long time to come, I was very pleased to hear from you. I am glad that you both are well and working, and that everything is fine with you.
I am in good health and still kicking around. We are quite busy flying and it is quite exciting. So far I’ve been very lucky and I hope it continues.
The weather is very nice, there is no snow and we go out without a greatcoat, there is grass everywhere.
Tell Paul that when I’ll come back, I’ll need more then one stein of Black Horse. Best of luck to him.
Tell mammy that I didn’t receive any parcels and cigs for the last 2 months, so I guess there is some lost.
Give my regards to everybody and tell everybody to write.
Cheerio,
Albert

For that mission on Hamburg, there were 9 Wellingtons MkIII at the departure.

Wellington Mk III

The first Wellington took off at 18:08 and the last one at 18:20. My uncle’s KW-B took off at 18:18 in 7th position on the runway. The reports indicate they made it to their destination and the mission was accomplished. The KW-B was the only one brought down by the “flak” above Schenefeld, there were no survivors.

Wellington

All the other Wellingtons made it back to Dishforth.

I tried to imagine what the crew`s last moments were like. Were they conscious of this tragedy? And my uncle in his bomb aimer position in the nose of the Wellington must have seen very clearly the shell explode around the plane. Were they terrified? Certainly yes. Did they suffer? Hopefully not.

On this November 11, 2014, I was remembering the crew’s sacrifice on the KW-B. Sgt J.L.Gauthier the pilot, Sgt.J.E.Audy the 2nd pilot, Sgt.J.I.Glassberg the navigator, Sgt. W.C. Forbes the wireless air gunner, the rear gunner F/S J.W. Maurice Edmond Lanctin,  and my uncle Sgt. J.-B.-A. Dugal the bomb aimer.

cimetière KB-E_0003

R-I-P

March 2, 1946

On the 3rd anniversary of her husband’s death, Mrs. Helene Patricia McManemin had this very touching poem published in The Montreal Star newspaper on March 2, 1946. This poem expresses her grief and touched me deeply. I want to share it with you..

In Memoriam 1 In Memoriam

Dugal: In proud and loving memory of my darling husband,
W/O 2 Albert Dugal, R.C.A.F., Alouette Squadron, officially presumed killed March 3, 1943. Interment took place in Hamburg. Germany.
« There is not a day do I forget you,
In my heart you are always near,
I who loved you, sadly miss you,
As it dawns another year,
Oft and oft my thoughts do wonder,
To that grave so far away,
Where they laid my darling husband,
Three years ago today. »
Always remembered by his loving wife, Helen.

KB-E_0003

To that grave so far away,
Where they laid my darling husband,

Aftermath

Just a few weeks after hearing of his son’s death, my grand-father Albert Dugal Sr, passed away from a heart attack (broken heart). So my grand-mother lost her son and beloved husband just a few weeks apart.

Prologue

Of the 5 graduates from the Mont-Joli Air School, 4 of them did not survive more than 12 months.

KB-E_0010

Mission accomplished

I finally accomplished my mission for you Uncle Albert, who died for liberty.

I have learned a lot more on you and your path in the RCAF than anyone else in our family. Thanks to Pierre, his network and my research on you and your life, your memory will now be nourished for eternity.

From your nephew Jacques, for all the Dugal nieces and nephews.

homage

Il y a 73 ans…

Hommage écrit par son neveu Jacques au nom de tous ses neveux et de toutes ses nièces qui ont du sang Dugal…

Je voudrais vous parler de mon oncle le Flight Sergeant J. J-B. Albert Dugal, membre de l’Escadron 425 Les Alouettes lors de la dernière guerre mondiale. Il est mort le 3 mars 1943 au cours d’une mission de bombardement sur Hambourg, il était le « bomb aimer » lors de cette sortie.

Bomb Aimer

Je n’ai jamais connu oncle Albert, je suis né 11 mois après son décès. Toutefois son souvenir m’a toujours été présent car entretenu par ma grand-mère et ma mère sa sœur. Pour moi il était ce brave héros qui avait sacrifié sa vie pour la patrie et la liberté. Mais qui était-il vraiment?

KB-E_0009

J’ai donc décidé de m’investir sérieusement dans cette aventure fascinante et partir à la découverte de mon héros d’enfance. Ici je veux saluer et remercier M. Pierre Lagacé et son réseau de contacts, pour l’aide précieuse qu’ils m’ont apportée. Sans Pierre, je me serais facilement découragé.

Je me suis mis à l’œuvre en revisitant mes vieilles boîtes de photos et de lettres que ma mère m’avait léguées à sa mort. Aussi j’ai pu questionner ma tante Claire la seule personne vivante et capable de répondre à mes nombreuses questions. Elle était heureuse de m’aider à faire revivre le souvenir de son grand frère mort à la guerre il y a très longtemps. Merci à vous tante Claire.

Le Flight Sergeant Albert Dugal est né à Montréal le 5 mai 1913. Il était le fils de Rose-Anna Godin et Albert Dugal Sr. Il était l’aîné d’une fratrie de 10 enfants. Sa sœur Claire me dit qu’il était très respectueux et doux envers ses parents. Je lui ai demandé de me le décrire en tant que frère et elle me confirme qu’Albert agissait de la même façon avec eux.

En juillet 1940, à 27 ans, il décide de joindre la RAF. Il s’y prendra par deux fois avant d’être accepté le 5 mai 1941, journée où il signe les documents d’engagement. Il a obtenu le grade de Sergent observateur en mars 1942 à la 9e école de bombardement et de tir de Mont-Joli.
Le 1 avril 1942 il prend pour épouse sa belle Irlandaise Hélène Patricia McMenamin.

KB-E_0005

Ils vivront ensemble maritalement seulement 13 jours, car Albert prendra le train pour Halifax le 14 avril suivant. L’embarquement pour l’Angleterre se fera le 30 avril et il touchera le sol anglais le 13 mai 1942.

Lors de la formation de l’escadron 425 Alouette en juin 1942, mon oncle le Sergent Albert Dugal était parmi les premiers « airmen » sélectionnés. Toutefois au cours de l’entraînement, il a subi une sévère blessure au pied gauche. Cette blessure l’a tenu à l’écart jusqu’au début novembre 1942. Sa première mission fut le 11 novembre 1942 (gardening). Il en fit 8 autres avant la 10e et fatidique sortie le 3 mars 1943 sur Hambourg.

La dernière mission

Le matin du 3 mars, après le « briefing » usuel, il a dû faire sa préparation pour la mission. Comme pour chaque sortie il a certainement écrit une belle lettre d’amour à sa douce Irlandaise Hélène. Il a dû lui redire comme à chaque sortie combien il l’aimait et combien elle lui manquait énormément et surtout de ne pas s’inquiéter. Souvenons-nous qu’ils ont vécu maritalement à peine deux semaines avant son départ pour le combat. Ensuite il a écrit une dernière lettre à sa sœur Pauline ma mère.

J’inclus ici l’intégral de la lettre.

lettre1 lettre2lettre3

 

425 squadron

March 3

Pauline,

Just received your letter of Feb 1 and although it took a long time to come, I was very pleased to hear from you. I am glad that you both are well and working, and that everything is fine with you.

I am in good health and still kicking around. We are quite busy flying and it is quite exciting. So far I’ve been very lucky and I hope it continues.

The weather is very nice, there is no snow and we go out without a greatcoat, there is grass everywhere.

Tell Paul that when I’ll come back, I’ll need more then one stein of Black Horse. Best of luck to him.

Tell mammy that I didn’t receive any parcels and cigs for the last 2 months, so I guess there is some lost.

Give my regards to everybody and tell everybody to write.

Cheerio,

Albert

 

Pour cette mission sur Hambourg, ils étaient 9 Wellingtons MkIII au départ. Le premier Wellington décolla à 18h08 et le dernier à 18h20. Le KW-B de mon oncle décolla à 18h18h en 7e position sur la piste. Les rapports disent qu’ils se sont rendus à destination et que la mission fut accomplie. Seul le KW-B fut abattu par la flak au-dessus de Schenefeld, aucun survivant. Malheureusement, cette nuit-là une boule noire avec KW-B inscrit dessus tomba du boulier.

425 45e 021 Wellington

Tous les autres Wellingtons sont entrés à Dishforth.

J’ai longuement réfléchi sur ce qu’ont été les derniers moments de l’équipage. Ont-ils eu connaissance de la tragédie qui se tramait? Et mon oncle Albert à sa position de bomb aimer dans le nez du Wellington, il devait voir très clairement les obus éclatés autour de l’avion. Ont-ils eu peur? Oui certainement. Ont-ils souffert? J’espère que non.

En ce 11 novembre 2014, je tiens à me rappeler le sacrifice de l’équipage du KW-B: le pilote Sgt J.L.Gauthier, le 2nd pilot Sgt.J.E.Audy, le navigateur Sgt.J.I.Glassberg, le wireless air gunner Sgt.W.C.Forbes, le mitrailleur arrière F/S J.W. Maurice Edmond Lanctin, et le bomb aimer, mon oncle, le Sgt. J.B.A.Dugal.

cimetière

KB-E_0003

 

R-I-P

Le 2 Mars 1946

À l’occasion du 3e anniversaire du décès de son époux, Mrs. Helene Patricia McManemin a fait publier un très touchant poème dans le journal The Montreal Star du 2 mars 1946. Ce petit poème exprime bien son chagrin et il m’a beaucoup ému. Je vous le partage.

In Memoriam 1

In Memoriam

Dugal: In proud and loving memory of my darling husband,

W/O 2 Albert Dugal, R.C.A.F., Alouette Squadron, officially presumed killed March 3rd 1943. Interment took place in Hamburg. Germany.

« There is not a day do I forget you,
In my heart you are always near,
I who loved you, sadly miss you,
As it dawns another year,
Oft and oft my thoughts do wonder,
To that grave so far away,
Where they laid my darling husband,
Three years ago today. »

Always remembered by his loving wife, Helen.

KB-E_0003

To that grave so far away,
Where they laid my darling husband,

Victime collatérale

Quelques semaines après l’annonce du décès de son fils, mon grand-père Albert Dugal Sr, le père du Flt Sgt Albert Dugal, a pris le lit et il est décédé d’une maladie du cœur (cœur brisé). Ma grand-mère a donc perdu en quelques semaines son fils et son mari bien-aimés.

Prologue

Sur les cinq gradués de l’école de Mont-Joli, quatre n’ont pas survécu douze mois.

KB-E_0010

 

Mission accomplie

Voilà mon oncle! j’ai finalement accompli ma mission oncle Albert, toi qui est mort pour la liberté.
J’ai appris plus de détails sur toi et ton parcours dans la RAF que quiconque dans notre famille. Grâce à Pierre et son réseau, et avec tout ce que j’ai découvert sur toi, il y aura une transmission de données qui assura et nourrira ainsi ton souvenir pour l’éternité.

De ton neveu Jacques au nom de tous tes neveux et de toutes tes nièces qui ont du sang Dugal

L'homme et l'avion

Flying Officer Dugas

Qu’est devenu le Flying Officer Dugas, le pilote de la première mission de Julien Guilbeault?

Il est devenu un Flight Lieutenant et a été fait prisonnier…

Tiré du site de Richard Koval

F/Lt M. Dugas, RCAF–POW and crew, flying Halifax III LW-379 coded KW-D, failed to return from this operation.

F/Sgt. J. Carrier, RCAF–POW
F/Lt. H. Goodwin, RAF–POW
F/O J. St. Arnaud, RCAF–POW
W/O2 J. Ranger, RCAF–POW
P/O J. Crispin, RCAF–POW
F/Sgt. J. Federico, RCAF–POW
P/O J. Savoie, RCAF–KILLED
1 crew-member was killed and 7 were POWs after being shot down by a Nightfighter over the target.

November 1/2, 1944

202 Halifaxes from 408, 415, 420, 424, 425, 426, 427, 429, 432, 433, and 434 squadrons were joined by 47 Lancasters from 419, 428, and 431 on an attack at Oberhausen. The crews were over the target at between 17,000 and 21,000 feet, releasing 1,979,000 lbs of high explosives and 379,000 lbs of incendiaries. The target was cloud covered and the attack was scattered.

408 Squadron

P/O E. Patzer from 408 Squadron was hit by flak, not serious.
P/O L. Case and crew, flying Halifax VII NP-714 coded EQ-V, were attacked by 2 ME-210s. Many strikes were seen on the first attacker and the port engine burst into flames and the ME-210 dove down through the clouds. The second attack took place as the ME-210 was attacking a Lancaster, both gunners opened fire, many strikes were seen and it burst into flames and dove through the clouds. They were both claimed destroyed.

Me210

Me-210

415 Squadron

P/O T. Donnelly from 415 squadron had the stbd outer go u/s on return. They landed safely at Woodbridge on 3 engines.
F/O R. Gingrich had the port rudder and elevator damaged when the escape hatch blew off.

419 Squadron

F/Lt A. Warner and crew from 419 Squadron, flying Lancaster X KB-744 coded NA-J, borrowed from 428 Squadron were attacked by an ME-410. There was no claim or damage.

ME410

Me-410

F/Lt J. Bell had an engine go u/s on return they landed safely at base on 3 engines.
F/O R. Cox RCAF and crew, flying Lancaster X KB-767 coded VR-U, was attacked by an FW-190, the fuselage and tail severely damaged. A short time later they were hit by flak with more damage. They were attacked again by an FW-190.

Focke-Wulf Fw-190

FW-190

The stbd wing, intercom, hydraulics, instruments, and port inner were damaged. There was a fire in the stbd wing and both tires were flat. The stbd inner quit and twice the Lancaster went into a spiral dive only to be pulled out at 1,500 feet. The crew headed for Belgium where the port inner was restarted and they again turned for home. They landed safely at Manston. It was only then that the rear gunner, navigator, and wireless operator were known to be injured during the attack or while putting out the fire. F/O S. Lindsay RCAF, the navigator, F/O L. Sitlington RCAF, the wireless operator, and F/Sgt R. Toane RCAF, the rear gunner, were hospitalized with their injuries and were also decorated for their actions on this operation, along with the pilot F/O Cox. This Lancaster was totally riddled with holes and never flew again.

 

420 Squadron

F/O F. Beairsto and crew from 420 Squadron, flying Halifax III MZ-540 coded PT-H, were attacked by a JU-88,there was no claim or damage.
F/O W. Shotton was hit by flak, there were holes in both wings.
F/Lt F. McCarthy lost a bomb door on return.
F/O E. Johnson had the port outer go u/s on return. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.
F/Lt J. S. Sefton and crew, flying Halifax III LL-605 coded PT-K, were attacked by an ME-109, many strikes were seen, the engine caught fire and it dove to the ground, it was claimed destroyed.

Me109_G-6_D-FMBB_1

ME-109

F/O O. Austenson had a hydraulics go u/s on return as the bomb doors fell open.

424 Squadron

F/O R.Burns from 424 squadron was hit by flak, not serious.
P/O A Jacobs, RCAF and crew, flying Halifax III MZ-376 coded QB-K,

Sgt. G. Vernon, RAF–KILLED
F/O J. Fraser, RCAF–KILLED
P/O. W. Gibson, RCAF–KILLED
P/O R. Kay, RCAF–KILLED
P/O W. Yunsko, RCAF–KILLED
F/Sgt. H. Botterill, RCAF–KILLED
All were killed.

425 Squadron

F/O T. MacKinnon from 425 Squadron returned early as the stbd outer was u/s. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.
F/O R. Lafreniere was hit by flak, not serious.
F/O A. Hutcheon landed at Woodbridge due to the brakes being u/s.
F/O D. Smith landed at Carnaby due to the brakes being u/s.
F/O P. Legault and crew, flying Halifax III NA-634 coded KW-X, were attacked by an ME-110, strikes were seen and it was claimed damaged. They were also damaged, the port flap was shot off and the fuselage was riddled with exploding shrapnel.

Me-110G-4-Nightfighter

Me-110

P/O G. Chabot was hit by flak, there was holes in the fuselage bomb doors and elevator. They landed at Horsham St. Faith due to a fuel shortage.

F/Lt M. Dugas, RCAF–POW and crew, flying Halifax III LW-379 coded KW-D, failed to return from this operation.

F/Sgt. J. Carrier, RCAF–POW
F/Lt. H. Goodwin, RAF–POW
F/O J. St. Arnaud, RCAF–POW
W/O2 J. Ranger, RCAF–POW
P/O J. Crispin, RCAF–POW
F/Sgt. J. Federico, RCAF–POW
P/O J. Savoie, RCAF–KILLED
1 crew-member was killed and 7 were POWs after being shot down by a Nightfighter over the target.

426 Squadron

P/O T. Layman from 426 squadron returned early as they were unable to raise the under carriage.
F/Lt. A. Jones was hit by flak, not serious.
F/O W. Anderson, RCAF and crew, flying Halifax VII NP-709 coded OW-A, failed to return from this operation.

Sgt. J. Langton, RAF–KILLED
F/O G. Mullin, RCAF–KILLED
P/O C. Goble, RCAF–KILLED
Sgt. T. Edgell, RCAF–KILLED
F/Sgt. L. Griffith, RCAF–KILLED
F/Sgt. J. McLea, RCAF–KILLED
All were killed.
P/O R. Goreham, RCAF–POW and crew flying Halifax VII NP-771 coded OW-J failed to return from this operation.

Sgt. R. Charlton, RAF–KILLED
P/O E. Courtis, RCAF–KILLED
P/O A. McLeod, RCAF–KILLED
P/O J. Weedon, RCAF–KILLED
P/O W. Morrison, RCAF–POW
P/O A. Balfour, RCAF–KILLED
5 crew were killed and 2 POWs after being shot down by flak.

427 Squadron

F/O G. Tegerdine and crew from 427 Squadron, flying Halifax III were attacked by 2 Jet propelled aircraft, many strikes were seen on both and they both burst into flames, one was claimed damaged and the other, probably destroyed..
F/Lt E. Sherlock was attacked by a Jet propelled aircraft. Many strikes were seen and it burst into flames, diving vertically through the clouds, it was claimed probably destroyed.

F/Lt. G. Bennett from 429 squadron had the port inner go u/s over the target. They returned safely on 3 engines.
F/O C. Gray and crew, flying Halifax III MZ-474 coded AL-B, were attacked head on by an FW-190. F/O R. Herbert, the bomb aimer, shot it down. Pretty amazing feat with a single vickers gun!!!
F/O D. Magee was hit by flak. There was severe damage to the stbd outer engine, wings, fins, rudders and fuselage. The Flt/Engineer, Sgt. M. Bareham, was fatally wounded despite the crews efforts to care for him. On landing at Woodbridge, the Halifax swung and the under carriage collapsed damaging it further. The crew escaped further injuries.

F/O D. Connor, RCAF–KILLED, and crew, flying Lancaster X KB-817 coded SE-P, from 431 squadron failed to return from this operation.

P/O R. Joiner, RCAF–KILLED
P/O J. Ogg, RCAF–POW
W/O2 J. Patterson, RCAF–POW
W/O1 G. Leppington, RCAF–POW
Sgt. J. Campbell, RCAF–Evd
W/O2 R. Page, RCAF–POW
2 crewmembers were killed, 4 were POWs, and one evaded capture. Sgt J. Campbell landed by parachute he subsequently met Dutch civilians who assisted him in evading capture until Nov.16th when the area was liberated by British troops, and he was returned to England.

 

432 Squadron

F/O D. McKinnon from 432 squadron returned early as the intercom was u/s.

 

433 Squadron

W/Cdr F. Sharp from 433 squadron was attacked by a JU-88, there was no claim or damage.

Ju_88G_infl_nightbomber

Ju-88

 

434 Squadron

W/O1 C. Ferris RCAF and crew, flying Halifax III NR-144 coded WL-S from 434 squadron, was hit by flak, there were holes in the fuselage. The wireless operator, W/O1 S. Martin, was fatally injured. The bomb aimer, navigator and Flt/Engineer were also injured.
F/O J. Badgley, RCAF–KILLED, and crew flying Halifax III NR-114 coded WL-U,failed to return from this operation.

P/O D. Jones, RAF–KILLED
F/O R. Halfnight, RCAF–POW
P/O R. Murphy, RCAF–KILLED
W/O2 L. Gobel, RCAF–POW
P/O D. Brown, RCAF–KILLED
P/O A. Best, RCAF–KILLED
5 crewmembers were killed and 2 were POWs.

 

À la mémoire du
Sous-lieutenant d’aviation
Joseph William Savoie
1 novembre 1944

Service militaire :

Numéro matricule : J/92471
Âge : 19
Force : Aviation militaire
Unité : Aviation royale du Canada
Division : 425 Sqdn.
Renseignements additionnels :

Cimetière :
CIMETIÈRE DE GUERRE DE LA FORÊT DE REICHSWALD, Germany
Informations sur la sépulture :
25. G. 16.
Fils de Daniel et Louise Savoie, de Neguac, Northumberland Co., Nouveau-Brunswick, Canada.

Flight Sergeant J. J-B. Albert Dugal, membre de l’Escadron 425 Les Alouettes

Avant de poursuivre l’hommage à Jean-Paul Michaud

Souvenirs de guerre

Je voudrais vous parler de mon oncle le Flight Sergeant J. J-B. Albert Dugal, membre de l’Escadron 425 Les Alouettes lors de la dernière guerre mondiale. Il est mort le 3 mars 1943 au cours d’une mission de bombardement sur Hambourg, il était le « bomb aimer » lors de cette sortie.

KB-E_0003

Je n’ai jamais connu oncle Albert, je suis né 11 mois après son décès. Toutefois son souvenir m’a toujours été présent car entretenu par ma grand-mère et ma mère sa sœur. Pour moi il était ce brave héros qui avait sacrifié sa vie pour la patrie et la liberté. Mais qui était-il vraiment?

KB-E_0009

J’ai donc décidé de m’investir sérieusement dans cette aventure fascinante et partir à la découverte de mon héros d’enfance. Ici je veux saluer et remercier M. Pierre Lagacé et son réseau de contacts, pour l’aide précieuse qu’ils m’ont apportée. Sans Pierre, je me serais facilement découragé.

Je…

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