Qui a pris cette photo et quand?

written on back-Raid on Munster-if we came back it was a miracle and I still can't believe it

Written on back

Raid on Munster

if we came back it was a miracle and I still can’t believe it

4 réflexions sur “Qui a pris cette photo et quand?

  1. À propos du raid sur Münster…

    During World War II, Münster was targeted as part of the Area Bombing Directive. As a result, allied bombing destroyed almost 91 % of the city centre including a large number of important historical buildings, such as Münster Cathedral, the Palace, and nearly all of the buildings on Prinzipalmarkt. Overall, approximately 63 % of the city was destroyed.[5] It is important to note, however, that the most important gabled buildings on Prinzipalmarkt have been restored, albeit somewhat simplified. This is primarily because the citizens of Münster elected to rebuild the old city rather than replace it with new, modern buildings. Thus, the historic city centre remains evident today.

    The first bombing raid on 16 May 1940 destroyed an industrial warehouse. Another 23 raids followed up until December. In the nights of 6-10 July 1941, Münster was among the first German cities to be subjected to allied carpet bombing. A large night raid on 12 June 1943 was followed by a dawn raid on 10 October 1943 which destroyed or severely damaged much of the inner city. Periodic bombing followed until August of 1944 in order to bring about the unconditional surrender of Germany; the morale of the civilian population had to be broken. Between September 1944 and March 1945, 50 bombing raids were launched against Münster. The last and most destructive raid on 25 March 1945 laid waste to what little remained of the shattered city centre: in just a quarter hour between 10:06 am and 10:22 am, 112 heavy bombers released around 1,800 high-explosive and 150,000 incendiary bombs. One of the bomber pilots later reported, « We dropped our load, just like in training, we rattled off 441 tons of bombs in 16 minutes – you can rub ‘Münster’ off the map… ». [6] On the evening of Easter Monday, 2 April 1945, troops from the US 17th Airborne Division and a British armoured division took Münster without meeting any resistance. At this point only 17 families were still living inside the Promenade, the ring road that encircles Münster.[7]

    Up to this point, air-raid sirens had sounded in Münster 1,128 times and there had been 102 bombing raids. In all, 32,000 high-explosive bombs, 642,000 incendiary bombs and 8,100 phosphorus bombs were dropped on the city. Over 1,600 people lost their lives directly as a result of the bombing. The relatively low number of casualties in comparison to the intensity of the bombing can be explained by the fact that, by the end of war, when the heaviest bombing took place, most of the population had already abandoned the city. Out of 33,737 homes in the urban area, only 1,050 remained undamaged;[8] over 60 % were severely damaged or completely destroyed and thereby rendered unliveable. The infrastructure in the city collapsed completely: the water pipelines had been mostly destroyed as was 85 % of the electricity grid. The gas supply had failed completely. The streets were impassable and the public transport system no longer functioned. In addition, 24 schools had been destroyed along with most of the hospitals; out of almost 7,000 hospital beds, only ca. 400 remained usable. Overall, ca. 2.5 million tons of rubble and debris had accumulated in Münster that had to be cleared up.[4]

  2. 25 March 1945

    The Bomber Command operations on this day were directed to towns on the main reinforcement routes into the Rhine battle area. Heavy attacks were made on the railway routes through these towns and on the surrounding built-up areas.

    Hannover attacked by 267 Lancasters and 8 Mosquitos of Nos 1, 6 and 8 Groups. The bombing was observed to fall in the target area. 1 Lancaster lost.

    175 aircraft – 151 Halifaxes, 14 Lancasters, 10 Mosquitos – of Nos 4, 6 and 8 Groups raided Münster. 3 Halifaxes lost. Few results were seen by the bombers because the target area rapidly became smoke-covered. Münster reports a large number of bombs but only 2 people dead.

    156 aircraft – 132 Halifaxes, 14 Lancasters, 10 Mosquitos – of Nos 4 and 8 Groups to Osnabrück. No aircraft lost. Osnabrück reports extensive property damage throughout the town.

    Total effort for the day: 606 sorties, 4 aircraft (0.7 per cent) lost.

    http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20070706011932/http:/www.raf.mod.uk/bombercommand/mar45.html

  3. Site de Richard Koval

    March 25 1945

    99 Halifaxes from 408, 415, 420, 425, 426, and 432 Squadrons were ordered on an attack of the rail yards and supply routes at Munster. The crews were over the target at between 17,000 and 19,000 feet, releasing 192,000 lbs of high explosives and 460,000 lbs of incendiaries. According to reports, the target was covered with smoke and dust.

    F/Lt A. Bossenberry from 408 Squadron landed at Dalton on return.
    F/O F. Reain, F/Lt L. Richards, F/O K. Blyth, W/O2 J. Fitzsimmons, F/Lt F. Smith, F/Lt H. Bracken, F/Lt W. Austin, W/O1 R. Herringer, S/Ldr H. Saunders, W/Cdr F. Sharp, P/O L. Carahan, F/Lt G. Gross, and F/Lt J. Baird landed at Leeming on return.
    F/O M. Monahan landed at Croft on return.
    F/O B. Burrows RCAF and crew, flying Halifax VII NP-804 coded EQ-K, failed to return from this operation.

    Sgt R. Hamilton RAF
    F/O W. Lay RCAF
    F/O F. Shantz RCAF
    F/O J. Marchant RCAF
    F/Sgt L. Cofield RCAF
    F/Sgt W. Dyer RCAF–POW

    6 crew were killed and 1 POW after being shot down by flak.

    F/O J. McKenzie, F/O G. Hyland, F/Lt W. Goodwin, F/O J. Patterson, F/Lt A. Cruikshank, F/Lt F. Cahill, F/O E. Millbank, F/Lt E. Wilkinson, F/O J. Addison, F/O L. Minkler, F/O V. Clothier, F/O J. Hechter, and P/O C. Ensom from 415 Squadron landed at Wombleton on return due to poor weather at base.
    P/O R. Pallin landed at Croft on return due to poor weather at base.
    F/O V. Clark landed at Carnaby on return due to poor weather at base.
    F/O R. Evans was hit by flak, not serious .
    F/O J. McCollum RCAF and crew, flying Halifax III MZ-907 coded 6U-P, failed to return from this operation.

    Sgt S. Lowe RAF
    F/O R. Aylesworth RCAF–POW
    P/O R. Paul RCAF
    F/Sgt A. Knight RCAF–POW
    P/O J. Jones RCAF
    P/O L. Brennan RCAF

    5 crew were killed and 2 POWs after being shot down by flak.

    F/O L. Simonson from 420 Squadron was hit by flak, there were holes in the port wing and fuselage. They landed at Carnaby on return.
    F/O R. Lepp was hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Carnaby on return.
    F/Lt D. McIntyre, P/O R. Bagnell, F/Lt R. Close, F/O J. Fawcett, F/O D. Hill, and F/O R. Kane were hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Dishforth on return.
    F/O D. Gordon had the port outer go u/s on return. They landed safely at Carnaby on return.
    F/Lt R. Flynn and P/O G. Mills were hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Snaith on return.
    P/O T. Ford, F/O N. Toderan, F/Lt N. McHolm, F/Lt D. Rush, F/Sgt J. Bryan, P/O J. MacKenzie, F/O H. Fawcett, and P/O M. Callahan landed at Dishforth on return.

    F/O M. Chappel and P/O A. Belanger from 425 Squadron were hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Dishforth on return.
    F/O L. Dumais landed at Croft on return.
    F/O J. Violette, F/Lt C. Lesesne, P/O G. Turcotte, and P/O J. Kolisnek landed at Dishforth on return.
    W/O2 M. Lavoie RCAF and crew, flying Halifax III NR-194 coded KW-J, had the stbd inner running poorly outbound. On return the stbd outer was u/s. On landing at Riccall, they overshot the airfield and did a wheels up landing in a field.
    The crew was not injured.

    F/O F. Alward RCAF and crew from 426 Squadron, flying Halifax VII NP-818 coded OW-M, swung on takeoff. They hit a ditch, wiping off the undercarriage and the aircraft burned and blew up.

    Sgt N. Jackson RAF
    F/O M. Wright RCAF
    Sgt O. Phillips RCAF
    F/O F. Dickinson RCAF
    F/Sgt L. Peck RCAF
    F/Sgt J. Titus RCAF

    All the crew escaped without injury.

    P/O D. Black was hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Leeming on return.
    F/lt J. Barr, P/O F. Berg, P/O E. Parcher, F/Lt A. Davies, F/Lt D. Hamilton, P/O A. Hutchins, F/O R. Swift, P/O J. MacFarlane, P/O A. Wilkinson, P/O H. Mercer, F/O J. MacDougall, and F/Lt G. McMonnies landed at Leeming on return.
    F/O S. Levis RCAF–POW and crew, flying Halifax VII NP-811 coded OW-J, failed to return from this operation.

    Sgt J. Rattigan RCAF–POW
    F/O W. Jarvis RCAF–POW
    P/O L. Branston RCAF
    Sgt R. Eyre RCAF–POW
    Sgt S. Ross RCAF–POW
    Sgt K. Montagano RCAF–POW

    6 crew were POWs and 1 killed after being shot down by flak.

    P/O D. Brown from 432 Squadron returned early as the stbd outer was u/s. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.
    P/O J. Daly, W/Cdr K. France, P/O H. Kearl, and F/O R. Ritchie were hit by flak, not serious. They landed at Wombleton on return.
    P/O S. Allen was hit by flak, the hydraulics were u/s. They landed at Wombleton on return.
    P/O J. Bigland was hit by flak, there were holes in the fuselage, port wing and flap. The aileron was also damaged. They landed safely at Wombleton on return.
    P/O J. Turner, F/O R. Proud and P/O J. Bain landed at Croft due to poor weather at base.
    F/O A. Smith, F/O S. Raymond, F/O J. Paul, W/O2 W. Gelineau, F/O A. King, and F/O R. Martindale landed at Wombleton on return due to poor weather at base.

    While the Halifaxes went to Munster, 100 Lancasters from 419, 424, 427, 428, 431, 433, and 434 Squadrons were ordered on an attack at Hannover. The crews were over the target at between 17,000 and 19,000 feet, releasing 392,000 lbs of high explosives and 571,000 lbs of incendiaries. According to reports, bombing was accurate and serious damage was caused.

    F/O G. Smith from 419 Squadron was hit by flak, not serious.
    F/Lt W. Armstrong had the port outer u/s before the target. They bombed and returned safely to base on 3 engines.

    F/Lt J. Matheson from 424 Squadron returned early as the port caught fire after takeoff. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.

    F/O F. Kaye from 427 Squadron was hit by flak, there were holes in the windscreen.
    F/O W. Inch bombed Langenhagen as the load hung up over Hannover.

    S/Ldr J. Hudson, F/O G. Johnson, F/O D. Walsh, F/O D. Varden and F/O A. Mutch from 428 Squadron were hit by flak, not serious.

    P/O J. Keates RCAF and crew from 431 Squadron, flying Lancaster X KB-874 coded SE-C, was hit by flak and seriously damaged over the target. They crash landed at Manston on return.

    Sgt R. Westman RAF
    F/Sgt J. Simmons RCAF
    Sgt A. Paige RCAF
    F/Sgt W. McLean RCAF
    F/Sgt D. Jardine RCAF
    F/Sgt G. Petrie RCAF

    2 crewmembers were slightly injured.

    F/O R. Johnstone from 433 Squadron returned early as the stbd outer was u/s. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.
    P/O J. O’Neil and F/Lt R. Paterson were hit by flak, not serious.
    F/O A. Heathcote had the stbd inner u/s over the target. They landed safely at base on 3 engines.
    F/Lt D. Rogers was hit by flak, the port inner was u/s, front turret badly damaged, and 2 fuel tanks were holed. They returned safely to base , although the crew was on standby to bail out.

    F/Lt I. Andres, F/Lt T. Coghlan and F/O J. Dawson from 434 Squadron were hit by flak, not serious.

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